Residential School Gravesites in Canada
Residential Schools in Canada
Please see the very eyeopening documentary of the issue of the First Nations Experience in Canadian Residential Schools
by Kevin Annett:
For many Canadians, even as this late hour in history, many of us are still not yet familiar with the horrific realities which unfolded across Canada in these residential schools. These were vague episodes confined to the edge of non-Aboriginal memories or awareness; if these events were even known about by non-Aboriginal people. For many Canadians the mention of them for most of us is likely still something vague and distance. Some of us had heard about some of the bad experiences in these “schools.” Yet most Canadians, and especially people outside of Canada, will not be able to speak far as to the extent of abuses which took place ; not of what questions have been asked of the authorities who who held stewardship over these Aboriginal lives. Most Canadians won’t be able to tell you much .Canadian school textbooks, where the Residential Schools are even mentioned, -are often very brief. Even at this time in history. Why? Often only a paragraph; or at most a half-page is given. ‘Yet the authorities knew what happened.’ We will explore deeper here into these questions.
Where were the residential schools in Canada? How many were there is a question that should be asked…
Let us now take a look as where these lives and happenings met one another. Some of these places may have been where we live or have lives; or where our families have resided:
Alberta Residential Schools:
- Assumption (Hay Lakes), Assumption, Alberta
- Blue Quills (Saddle Lake, Sacred Heart, formerly Lac la Biche), St. Paul, Alberta
- Crowfoot (St. Joseph’s, Ste. Trinité), Cluny, Alberta
- Desmarais (St. Martin’s, Wabasca Roman Catholic), Desmarais-Wabasca, Alberta
- Edmonton (formerly Red Deer Industrial), St. Albert, Alberta
- Ermineskin, Hobbema, Alberta
- Fort Vermilion (St. Henry’s), Fort Vermilion, Alberta
- Grouard (St. Bernard’s, Lesser Slave Lake Roman Catholic), Grouard , Alberta
- Holy Angels (Fort Chipewyan, École des Saints-Anges), Fort Chipewyan, Alberta
- Joussard (St. Bruno’s), Joussard, Alberta
- Lac la Biche (Notre Dame des Victoire, predecessor to Blue Quills), Lac la Biche, Alberta
- Lesser Slave Lake (St. Peter’s), Lesser Slave Lake, Alberta
- Morley (Stony), Morley, Alberta
- Old Sun, Gleichen, Alberta
- Sacred Heart, Brocket, Alberta
- St. Albert (Youville), Youville, Alberta
- St. Augustine (Smoky River), Smoky River, Alberta
- St. Cyprian’s (Queen Victoria’s Jubilee Home), Brocket, Peigan Reserve, Alberta
- St. Joseph’s (Dunbow), High River, Alberta
- St. Mary’s (Blood, Immaculate Conception), Cardston, Alberta
- St. Paul’s (Blood, Anglican/Church of England), Cardston, Alberta
- Sarcee (St. Barnabas), T’suu Tina, Alberta
- Sturgeon Lake (St. Francis Xavier), Calais, Alberta
- St. John’s (Wabasca Anglican/Church of England), Wabasca, Alberta
- Whitefish Lake (St. Andrew’s), Whitefish Lake, Alberta
British Columbia Residential Schools:
- Ahousaht, Ahousaht, British Columbia
- Alberni, Port Alberni, British Columbia
- Cariboo (St. Joseph’s, Williams Lake), Williams Lake, British Columbia
- Christie (Clayoquot, Kakawis), Tofino, British Columbia
- Coqualeetza, Chilliwack / Sardis, British Columbia
- Cranbrook (St. Eugene’s, Kootenay), Cranbrook, British Columbia
- Kamloops, Kamloops, British Columbia
- Kitimaat, Kitimaat, British Columbia
- Kuper Island, Kuper Island, British Columbia
- Lejac (Fraser Lake), Fraser Lake, British Columbia
- Lower Post, Lower Post, British Columbia
- Port Simpson (Crosby Home for Girls), Port Simpson, British Columbia
- St. George’s (Lytton), Lytton, British Columbia
- St. Mary’s (Mission), Mission, British Columbia
- St. Michael’s (Alert Bay Girls’ Home, Alert Bay Boys’ Home), Alert Bay, British Columbia
- Sechelt, Sechelt, British Columbia
- St. Paul’s (Squamish, North Vancouver), North Vancouver, British Columbia
- Anahim Lake Dormitory (September 1968 to June 1977), Anahim Lake, British Columbia
Manitoba Residential Schools:
- Assiniboia (Winnipeg), Winnipeg, Manitoba
- Birtle, Birtle, Manitoba
- Brandon, Brandon, Manitoba
- Churchill Vocational Centre, Churchill, Manitoba
- Cross Lake (St. Joseph’s, Jack River Annex – predecessor to Notre Dame Hostel), Cross Lake, Manitoba
- Dauphin (McKay), The Pas / Dauphin, Manitoba
- Elkhorn (Washakada), Elkhorn, Manitoba
- Fort Alexander (Pine Falls), Fort Alexander, Manitoba
- Guy Hill (Clearwater, The Pas, formerly Sturgeon Landing, SK), The Pas, Manitoba
- Norway House United Church, Norway House, Manitoba
- Notre Dame Hostel (Norway House Roman Catholic, Jack River Hostel, replaced Jack River Annex at Cross Lake), Norway House, Manitoba
- Pine Creek (Camperville), Camperville, Manitoba
- Portage la Prairie, Portage la Prairie, Manitoba
- Sandy Bay, Marius, Manitoba
Northwest Territories Residential Schools:
- Immaculate Conception (Aklavik Roman Catholic), Aklavik, NWT
- All Saints (Aklavik Anglican), Aklavik, NWT
- Fleming Hall (Fort McPherson), Fort McPherson, NWT
- Sacred Heart (Fort Providence), Fort Providence, NWT
- St. Joseph’s (Fort Resolution), Fort Resolution, NWT
- Bompas Hall (Fort Simpson Anglican), Fort Simpson, NWT
- Lapointe Hall (Fort Simpson Roman Catholic), Fort Simpson, NWT
- Breynat Hall (Fort Smith), Fort Smith, NWT
- Grandin College, Fort Smith, NWT
- Hay River (St. Peter’s), Hay River, NWT
- Grollier Hall (Inuvik Roman Catholic), Inuvik, NWT
- Stringer Hall (Inuvik Anglican Hostel), Inuvik, NWT
- Akaitcho Hall (Yellowknife), Yellowknife, NWT
- Federal Hostel at Fort Franklin, Déline, NWT
Nova Scotia Residential Schools:
- Shubenacadie, Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia
Nunavut Residential Schools:
- Chesterfield Inlet (Turquetil Hall), Chesterfield Inlet, Nunavut
- Federal Tent Hostel at Coppermine, Coppermine, Nunavut
- Federal Hostel at Baker Lake, Qamani’tuaq, Qamanittuaq, Nunavut
- Federal Hostel at Belcher Islands, Sanikiluaq, Nunavut
- Federal Hostel at Broughton Island, Qikiqtarjuaq, Nunavut
- Federal Hostel at Cambridge Bay, Cambridge Bay, Nunavut
- Federal Hostel at Cape Dorset, Kinngait, Nunavut
- Federal Hostel at Eskimo Point, Arviat, Nunavut
- Federal Hostel at Frobisher Bay (Ukkivik), Iqaluit , Nunavut
- Federal Hostel at Igloolik, Igloolik/Iglulik, Nunavut
- Federal Hostel at Lake Harbour, Kimmirut, Nunavut
- Federal Hostel at Pangnirtung (Pangnirtang), Pangnirtung / Panniqtuuq, Nunavut
- Federal Hostel at Pond Inlet, Mittimatalik, Nunavut
Ontario Residential Schools:
- Bishop Horden Hall (Moose Fort, Moose Factory), Moose Island, Ontario
- Cecilia Jeffrey (Kenora, Shoal Lake), Kenora, Ontario
- Chapleau (St. John’s), Chapleau, Ontario
- Cristal Lake High School (September 1, 1976 to June 30, 1986)
- Fort Frances (St. Margaret’s), Fort Frances, Ontario
- Fort William (St. Joseph’s), Fort William, Ontario
- McIntosh, McIntosh, Ontario
- Mohawk Institute, Brantford, Ontario
- Mount Elgin (Muncey, St. Thomas), Munceytown, Ontario
- Pelican Lake (Pelican Falls), Sioux Lookout, Ontario
- Poplar Hill, Poplar Hill, Ontario
- St. Anne’s (Fort Albany), Fort Albany, Ontario
- St. Mary’s (Kenora, St. Anthony’s), Kenora, Ontario
- Shingwauk (Wawanosh Home), Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
- Spanish Boys School (Charles Garnier, St. Joseph’s, formerly Wikwemikong Industrial), Spanish, Ontario
- Spanish Girls School (St. Joseph’s, St. Peter’s, St. Anne’s formerly Wikwemikong Industrial), Spanish, Ontario
- Stirland Lake High School/Wahbon Bay Academy (September 1, 1971 to June 30, 1991)
- Wawanosh Home (January 1, 1879 to August 5, 1892), Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
Québec Residential Schools:
- Amos (Saint-Marc-de-Figuery), Amos, Québec
- Pointe Bleue, Pointe Bleue, Québec
- La Tuque, La Tuque, Québec
- Fort George (St. Philip’s), Fort George, Québec
- Fort George (St. Joseph’s Mission, Résidence Couture, Sainte-Thérèse-de-l’Enfant-Jésus), Fort George, Québec
- Sept-Îles (Notre-Dame, Maliotenam), Sept-Îles, Québec
- Federal Hostel at George River, Kangirsualujjuaq, Québec
- Federal Hostel at Great Whale River (Poste-de-la-Baleine), Kuujjuaraapik / Whapmagoostui, Québec
- Federal Hostel at Payne Bay (Bellin), Kangirsuk, Québec
- Federal Hostel at Port Harrison (Inoucdjouac, Innoucdouac), Inukjuak, Québec
- Fort George Hostels (September 1, 1975 to June 30, 1978), Fort George, Québec
- NEW Mistassini Hostels (September 1, 1971 to June 30, 1978)
Saskatchewan Residential Schools:
- Beauval (Lac la Plonge), Beauval, Saskatchewan
- Crowstand, Kamsack, Saskatchewan
- File Hills, Balcarres, Saskatchewan
- Fort Pelly, Fort Pelly, Saskatchewan
- Gordon’s, Gordon’s Reserve, Punnichy, Saskatchewan
- Lebret (Qu’Appelle, Whitecalf, St. Paul’s High School), Lebret, Saskatchewan
- Marieval (Cowesess, Crooked Lake), Grayson, Saskatchewan
- Muscowequan (Lestock, Touchwood), Lestock, Saskatchewan
- Prince Albert (Onion Lake Church of England, St. Alban’s, All Saints, St. Barnabas, Lac La Ronge), Prince Albert, Saskatchewan
- Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan
- Round Lake, Stockholm, Saskatchewan
- St. Anthony’s (Onion Lake Roman Catholic), Onion Lake, Saskatchewan
- St. Michael’s (Duck Lake), Duck Lake, Saskatchewan
- St. Philip’s, Kamsack, Saskatchewan
- Sturgeon Landing (Predecessor to Guy Hill, MB), Sturgeon Landing, Saskatchewan
- Thunderchild (Delmas, St. Henri), Delmas, Saskatchewan
- Cote Improved Federal Day School (September 1928 to June 1940), Kamsack, Saskatchewan
- Battleford Industrial School (December 1883 to May 1914), Battleford, Saskatchewan
Yukon Residential Schools:
- Carcross (Chooutla), Carcross, Yukon
- Coudert Hall (Whitehorse Hostel/Student Residence – Predecessor to Yukon Hall), Whitehorse, Yukon
- Shingle Point (Predecessor to All Saints, Aklavik), Shingle Point, Yukon
- Whitehorse Baptist, Whitehorse, Yukon
- Yukon Hall (Whitehorse/Protestant Hostel), Whitehorse, Yukon
- St. Paul’s Hostel (September 1920 to June 1943), Dawson City, Yukon
Mass Graves at former Indian Residential Schools and Hospitals across Canada
A. British Columbia
- Port Alberni: Presbyterian- United Church school (1895-1973), now occupied by the Nuu-Chah-Nulth Tribal Council (NTC) office, Kitskuksis Road. Grave site is a series of sinkhole rows in hills 100 metres due west of the NTC building, in thick foliage, past an unused water pipeline. Children also interred at Tseshaht reserve cemetery, and in wooded gully east of Catholic cemetery on River Road.
- Alert Bay: St. Michael’s Anglican school (1878-1975), situated on Cormorant Island offshore from Port McNeill. Presently building is used by Namgis First Nation. Site is an overgrown field adjacent to the building, and also under the foundations of the present new building, constructed during the 1960’s. Skeletons seen “between the walls”.
- Kuper Island: Catholic school (1890-1975), offshore from Chemainus. Land occupied by Penelakut Band. Former building is destroyed except for a staircase. Two grave sites: one immediately south of the former building, in a field containing a conventional cemetery; another at the west shoreline in a lagoon near the main dock.
- Nanaimo Indian Hospital: Indian Affairs and United Church experimental facility (1942-1970) on Department of National Defense land. Buildings now destroyed. Grave sites are immediately east of former buildings on Fifth avenue, adjacent to and south of Malaspina College.
- Mission: St. Mary’s Catholic school (1861-1984), adjacent to and north of Lougheed Highway and Fraser River Heritage Park. Original school buildings are destroyed, but many foundations are visible on the grounds of the Park.
In this area there are two grave sites: a) immediately adjacent to former girls’ dormitory and present cemetery for priests, and a larger mass grave in an artificial earthen mound, north of the cemetery among overgrown foliage and blackberry bushes, and b) east of the old school grounds, on the hilly slopes next to the field leading to the newer school building which is presently used by the Sto:lo First Nation. Hill site is 150 metres west of building.
- North Vancouver: Squamish (1898-1959) and Sechelt (1912-1975) Catholic schools, buildings destroyed. Graves of children who died in these schools interred in the Squamish Band Cemetery, North Vancouver.
- Sardis: Coqualeetza Methodist-United Church school (1889-1940), then experimental hospital run by federal government (1940-1969). Native burial site next to Sto:lo reserve and Little Mountain school, also possibly adjacent to former school-hospital building.
- Cranbrook: St. Eugene Catholic school (1898-1970), recently converted into a tourist “resort” with federal funding, resulting in the covering-over of a mass burial site by a golf course in front of the building. Numerous grave sites are around and under this golf course.
- Williams Lake: Catholic school (1890-1981), buildings destroyed but foundations intact, five miles south of city. Grave sites reported north of school grounds and under foundations of tunnel-like structure.
- Meares Island (Tofino): Kakawis-Christie Catholic school (1898-1974). Buildings incorporated into Kakawis Healing Centre. Body storage room reported in basement, adjacent to burial grounds south of school.
- Kamloops: Catholic school (1890-1978). Buildings intact. Mass grave south of school, adjacent to and amidst orchard. Numerous burials witnessed there.
- Lytton: St. George’s Anglican school (1901-1979). Graves of students flogged to death, and others, reported under floorboards and next to playground.
- Fraser Lake: Lejac Catholic school (1910-1976), buildings destroyed. Graves reported under old foundations and between the walls.
- Edmonton: United Church school (1919-1960), presently site of the Poundmaker Lodge in St. Albert. Graves of children reported south of former school site, under thick hedge that runs north-south, adjacent to memorial marker.
- Edmonton: Charles Camsell Hospital (1945-1967), building intact, experimental hospital run by Indian Affairs and United Church. Mass graves of children from hospital reported south of building, near staff garden.
- Saddle Lake: Bluequills Catholic school (1898-1970), building intact, skeletons and skulls observed in basement furnace. Mass grave reported adjacent to school.
- Hobbema: Ermineskin Catholic school (1916-1973), five intact skeletons observed in school furnace. Graves under former building foundations.
- Brandon: Methodist-United Church school (1895-1972). Building intact. Burials reported west of school building.
- Portage La Prairie: Presbyterian- United Church school (1895-1950). Children buried at nearby Hillside Cemetery.
- Norway House: Methodist-United Church school (1900-1974). “Very old” grave site next to former school building, demolished by United Church in 2004.
- Thunder Bay: Lakehead Psychiatric Hospital, still in operation. Experimental centre. Women and children reported buried adjacent to hospital grounds.
- Sioux Lookout: Pelican Lake Catholic school (1911-1973). Burials of children in mound near to school.
- Kenora: Cecilia Jeffrey school, Presbyterian- United Church (1900-1966). Large burial mound east of former school.
- Fort Albany: St. Anne’s Catholic school (1936-1964). Children killed in electric chair buried next to school.
- Spanish: Catholic school (1883-1965). Numerous graves.
- Brantford: Mohawk Institute, Anglican church (1850-1969), building intact. Series of graves in orchard behind school building, under rows of trees.
- Sault Ste. Marie: Shingwauk Anglican school (1873-1969), some intact buildings. Several graves of children reported on grounds of old school.
- Montreal: Allan Memorial Institute, McGill University, still in operation since opening in 1940. MKULTRA experimental centre. Mass grave of children killed there north of building, on southern slopes of Mount Royal behind stone wall.
Portrayals in film
Year Title Director Notes 1978 Wandering Spirit Survival School National Film Board This school, organized by concerned parents, broke with tradition by introducing subjects that are of particular relevance to its pupils. The experience of the children is contrasted with the very different life experienced by their parents, educated in the old residential schools. 1985 The Mission School Syndrome Northern Native Broadcasting A documentary feature that investigates the effect of residential schools in the Yukon, focusing on former residents of the Lower Post Residential School, the Baptist Indian Mission School (Whitehorse), and the Chaoutla Indian Residential School (Carcross), as well as the Yukon Hall Residence in Whitehorse. 1989 Where the Spirit Lives Bruce Pittman A CBC dramatic portrayal of a young Aboriginal girl, Ashtoh-Komi, who is abducted and taken to a residential school in the 1930s. 1991 Violation of Trust Fifth Estate A compelling documentary about Canada’s worst-kept secret, examining the lives of residential school survivors, along with stories of abuse. 1992 Sleeping Children Awake Rhonda Kara Hanah Inspired by Shirley Cheechoo’s play Path with no Moccasins, Sleeping Children Awake is both a personal record of Canada’s history, and a tribute to the enduring strength of Native cultures. 1993 Beyond the Shadows Gryphon Productions Ltd. A powerful documentary about the legacy of Native residential schools (missionary schools). The video touches on the historical background of these schools, but primarily depicts painful personal experiences; the causes of multi-generational grief and healing processes underway in communities today. 1998 Kuper Island: Return to the Healing Circle National Film Board Like thousands of other Aboriginal people across Canada and the United States, the former residents of Kuper Island are now beginning to break the silence and to speak out about the trauma of their residential school experience. For them, the time for healing has come. 2001 Childhood Lost Doug Cuthand Through interviews, archival photos, and re-enactments, this program illuminates the experiences of four individuals who were sent to residential schools when they were very young. 2005 A Day at Indian Residential Schools in Canada Indigenous Education Coalition This 26 minute documentary, hosted by youth, explores the life at three Indian residential schools. Survivors recollect their daily routines, time spent on chores, and their feelings of isolation. This film features archival images of life at the schools as well as interviews with survivors who had never before spoken on camera about their experiences. 2007 The Fallen Feather: Indian Industrial Residential Schools Canadian Confederation Randy N Bezeau The fallen feather provides an in-depth critical analysis of the driving forces behind the creation of Canadian Indian residential schools. 2007 Unrepentant: Kevin Annett and Canada’s Genocide Kevin Annett A documentary describing the crimes committed in church-run residential schools. 2008 Muffins for Granny Mongrel Media Nadia McLaren tells the story of her own grandmother by combining precious home movie fragments with the stories of seven elders dramatically affected by their experiences in residential school. 2008 Our Spirits Don’t Speak English Chip Richie In 1869, the U.S. government enacted a policy of educating Native American children in the ways of western society. By the late 1960s, more than 100,000 had been forced to attend Indian Boarding School. 2008 Stolen Children CBC Learning In this package of documentaries from The National, CBC explores the impact of residential schools on former students and the larger community, presenting ideas for what more can be done to address this painful chapter in Canada’s history. 2009 The Experimental Eskimos Barry Greenwald In the early 1960s the Canadian government conducted an experiment in social engineering. Three young Inuit boys were separated from their families in the Arctic and were sent to Ottawa, the nation’s capital, to live with white families and to be educated in white schools. 2009 Kakalakkuvik (Where the Children Dwell) Jodie Weetaluktuk Kakalakkuvik recounts the vivid memories of former students from Port Harrison (now Inukjuak, Quebec), the first group of Inuit to sue the federal government for compensation. 2009 Shi-Shi-Etko Kate Kroll Shi-Shi-Etko will soon be taken away from her home to begin her formal western education at a residential school. Her mother, father and grandmother want her to remember her roots and they wait for her return in the spring to continue passing down those ideals to her. 2012 We Were Children Tim Wolochatiuk Documentary film about the experiences of survivors Lyna Hart (Guy Hill Residential School) and Glen Anaquod (Lebret Indian Residential School).
Portrayals in novels
Year Title Author ISBN Notes 1992 My Name is Seepeetza Shirley Sterling ISBN-10: 0888991657 First published in 1992 in Canada, where it won the Sheila A. Egoff Children’s Book Prize, this autobiographical novel is written in the form of Seepeetza’s diary in her Grade 6 year in the 1950s. 1998 Kiss of the Fur Queen Tomson Highway ISBN-10: 0385258801 Jeremiah and Gabriel grow into acclaimed artists attempting to work within white, European traditions while retaining the influence of Native culture. The novel follows the boys from the idyllic innocence of their Cree childhood through a forced relocation to an abusive residential school to their lives as young artists attempting to discover how far their natural talents can take them. 2001 No Time To Say Goodbye: Children’s Stories of Kuper Island Residential School Sylvia Olsen ISBN-10: 1550391216 A fictional account of five children sent to aboriginal boarding school, based on the recollections of a number of Tsartlip First Nations people. These unforgettable children are taken by government agents from Tsartlip Day School to live at Kuper Island Residential School. 2005 Shi-shi-etko Nicola I. Campbell ISBN-10: 0888996594 Shi-shi-etko counts down her last four days before going away. She tries to memorize everything about her home–tall grass swaying to the rhythm of the breeze, determined mosquitoes, working bumblebees. 2008 Shin-Chi’s Canoe Nicola I. Campbell ISBN-10: 0888998570 This moving sequel to the award-winning Shi-shi-etko tells the story of two children’s experience at residential school. Shi-shi-etko is about to return for her second year, but this time her six-year-old brother, Shin-chi, is going, too. 2009 Porcupines and China Dolls Robert Alexie ISBN-10: 1894778723 Enough alcohol silences the demons for a night; a gun and a single bullet silences demons forever. When a friend commits suicide and a former priest appears on television, the community is shattered. James and Jake confront their childhood abuse and break the silence to begin a journey of healing and rediscovery. 2010 Fatty Legs: A True Story Christy Jordan-Fenton & Margaret Pokiak-Fenton ISBN-10: 1554512468 Taunted and humiliated by Raven, the unkind nun in charge of the young girls, Margaret is willing to endure almost anything as long as she can learn to read. The unpleasant chores do not daunt her, but the teasing of other students and the unfair punishments do. When she is the only girl forced to wear ugly red stockings, however, Margaret has had enough, and fights back. 2011 A Stranger At Home: A True Story Christy Jordan-Fenton and Margaret Pokiak-Fenton ISBN-10: 1554513618 Travelling to be reunited with her family in the Arctic, 10-year-old Margaret Pokiak can hardly contain her excitement. It has been two years since her parents delivered her to the school run by the dark-cloaked nuns and brothers.
Portrayals on stage
Year Title Writer Director Notes 2008, 2012 “Where the Blood Mixes” Kevin Loring Bradley Moss “Winner of the 2009 Governor General’s Award, Where the Blood Mixes is a beautiful play about family, loss, redemption and healing. Floyd and Mooch, raised in residential schools, must confront their past when Floyd’s daughter Christine returns to Kumsheen after twenty years, to discover her past and her family”
Lasting effects of residential schools
Residential schools have had lasting effects on aboriginal communities. The schools had a negative impact on aboriginal culture and have led to the partial loss of aboriginal languages as a result of systemic cultural genocide. As a fallout of the residential schools, posttraumatic stress disorder, drug abuse and alcoholism, violence and domestic abuse, and incarceration are much more prevalent in Aboriginals than in other cultures within Canada. Further, the children of those who attended residential schools are also more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol than children in other cultures.
Discovery of Human Remains at Mohawk Institute in Brantford, Ontario
Since October 1, 2011, Archaeological surveys and test digs authorized by the elders of the Kanien’keha:ka Nation, have been conducted at the former Mohawk Institute Indian residential school. A test dig in a twenty square foot area on grounds adjoining the former Mohawk Institute have revealed a considerable number of bones, as well as buttons which have been confirmed to be part of the children’s school uniforms.